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Parker Parental Bonding Instrument « Surveys/Scales « Downloads

Date postedFebruary 2, 2012
Downloaded1044 times
CategoriesSurveys/Scales, Parenting, Family


The PBI is a 25-item self-report measure using a 4 point likert response format, assessing the individual’s perception of his or her parents during the first 16 years of life. One form is completed for each parent. The PBI measures perceived maternal and paternal “care” and “overprotection.” Care involves a dimension from parental affection, warmth and empathy (high scores) to parental coldness, indifference and rejection (low scores). Overprotection or control ranges from intrusiveness and infantilization (high scores) through to the detached promotion of independence (low scores). Twelve of the items are Care items, which allows for a maximum score of 36 for the Care dimension, and thirteen of the items are the Overprotection items, which allows for a maximum score of 39 for the Overprotection dimension. The PBI has good psychometric properties and is insensitive to the effects of the respondent’s mood (e.g., Parker, 1989). There is considerable support for its validity as a measure of both actual and perceived parenting, based on studies using family corroborative witnesses, twin studies, and studies using independent raters (e.g., MacKinnon et al., 1993; Parker, 1989; Parker and Lipscombe, 1981; Neale et al., 1994).

Gordon Parker, Hilary Tupling and L.B. Brown

Parker, G., Tupling, H., and Brown, L.B. (1979). A Parental Bonding Instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1-10.

Parker GB (1983) Parental overprotection: A risk factor in psychosocial development. New York: Grune and Stratton.

Parker GB (1989) The parental bonding instrument: psychometric properties reviewed. Psychiatr Dev 4:317-335.

Parker GB (1993) Parental rearing styles: Examining for links with personality vulnerability factors for depression. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 28:97-100.

Parker GB, Barrett EA, Hickie, IB (1992) From nurture to network: Examining links between perceptions of parenting received in childhood and social bonds in adulthood. Am J Psychiatry 149:877-885.

Parker GB, Kiloh L, Hayward L (1987) Parental representations of neurotic and endogenous depressives. J Affect Dis 13:75-82.

Parker GB, Lipscombe P (1981) Influences on maternal overprotection. Br J Psychiatry 138:303-311.

Cronbach alpha:

Maternal/Paternal Care=0.85

Maternal/Paternal Overprotection=0.69