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HIV Stigma « Surveys/Scales « Downloads

Date postedJanuary 25, 2012
Downloaded1586 times
CategoriesSurveys/Scales, Social, Quality of Life, Living with HIV


HIV-related stigma measures were adapted from scales that were developed, based on the work of Herek and Capitanio (1993), and validated by the Thai investigators in the Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand (Apinundecha, et al., 2007). After conducting exploratory factor analysis, we identified two factors that were conceptually identified as Perceived Stigma and Internalized Shame. Perceived stigma was created based on 8 items, and Internalized Shame was measured based on 9 items, as shown in Table 1. Response categories ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Summative composite scores were created for perceived stigma (range = 8 – 40) and internalized shame (range = 9-45), with Cronbach’s alphas of 0.75 and 0.81, respectively.

Perceived Stigma and Internalized Shame subscales:

Perceived Stigma
1. I am accused by others for being the spreader of AIDS in the community
2. People gossip about my HIV status
3. People look down on me
4. The society isolates me
5. I feel discriminated by health workers
6. I feel my life in this society is lonely
7. I worry about how other kids treat my children in school as a result of my HIV
8. I worry about how others will treat my family members as a result of my HIV

Internalized Shame
1. I am punished by evil
2. My life is tainted
3. I am angry with myself for getting HIV
4. I am a disgrace to society
5. My life is filled with shame
6. I feel guilty for being the source of disruption in the family
7. I feel my life is worthless
8. I feel my reputation is lost
9. If possible I want to conceal my HIV status for life

Apinundecha, C., Laohasiriwong, W., Cameron, M. P. & Lim, S. (2007). A community participation intervention to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeast Thailand. AIDS Care, 19, 1157-1165.

Herek, G. M. & Capitanio, J. P. (1993). Public reactions to AIDS in the United States: A second date of stigma. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 574-577.